Social groups

'A zha (2) 'Bal (6) 'Ber (3) 'Bre (2) 'Bring yas (9) 'Bro (33) 'Brom (5) 'Bu na (1) 'Da'r (1) 'Dan ma (1) 'Dral (2) 'Go (1) 'Go 'bom (5) 'Gong bom (3) 'Greng ro (6) 'Jang (4) 'O ma lde (4) 'Ol (2) 'Ol god (1) An (6) Bal po (4) Bam (9) ban de (13) bKrags (2) blon chen (37) bon po (1) Brag (2) Bran ka (3) btsan mo (6) btsun mo (17) Byin (1) Ce (1) Cog ro (33) Da rgyal (4) Dags (6) dBa's (24) dBrad (2) De'u (1) dGro snya (4) dre (1) Dru gu (2) gcen (3) gcung (4) Gle'u (1) gNang (3) gNo' (1) gNubs (12) gnyan (1) gNyi ba (5) gNyos (2) Gro (2) gshen (3) Gu rib (4) gZhams (3) je ba (2) Je'u (2) Jeng (2) Kam (3) Kang (1) Khe rgad (1) Khu (8) Khyung po (6) klu (1) Lang gro (6) lCi sa (2) lCog la (1) lDe sman (4) lDe'u (2) lha (13) lHa lung (1) lHo (4) Lig (2) Mar (1) Mar kong (1) mChims (17) Meg le (4) mGar (13) mGos (2) mkhan po (13) mKhar pa (1) mNon (5) mNyan (3) Mon (1) Mong (3) mThon myi (2) Myang (17) Myva (4) nang rje po (7) Nem (1) Ngan lam (4) Pa gor (2) Pa tsab (5) pho nya (12) Pho yong (1) Phung (1) phyva (1) Reb kong (4) rGya gar (11) rGya nag (12) rgyal pran (23) rHya (2) Rlang (19) rMa (2) rMe'u (1) rNgegs (8) Rong spo (4) rTsig (1) Ru yong (2) Rye shin (1) Sag (1) sBrang (3) Seng go (6) She'u (1) Shud ke (1) Shud pu (4) sKa ba (2) sKya tsa (7) sKyi (3) sman (1) sNa nam (13) sNya shur (5) sPu rgyal btsan po (43) sPug (4) srin (10) Sro (1) sTang (3) Sum pa (2) Tre (2) Tshar long (7) Tshes pong (14) Update (1) Wang (1) Yo gang (5) Zha snga (3) zhang (36) zhu chen (6)

Thursday, 27 April 2017

dBa's Khri bzang spo skyes

00207 
Other names / Alternative spellings 


Social groups (status, family, lineage...) 

dBa's family 


Period of activity 

VIIIth century ? 

Reign of Khri lDe gtsug brtsan


Biographical data 

dBa's Khri bzang spo skyes was the son of "zhang nyen" (possibly dBa's Khri gzigs zhang nyen, ms. ITJ 1368 l. 23). 


Titles 


Notes


dBa's Khri gzigs zhang nyen

00165
Other names / Alternative spellings 

dBa's Khri gzigs zhang nyen (ms. PT 1287 l. 108, PT 1288-ITJ 750 l. 155) 

Khri gzigs (ms. PT 1288-ITJ 750 l. 157, 161, 164, 167, 169, 180, 184, 187, 189, 191, 194, 197, 200, 203, 205, 209?, 214, 220) 

zhang nyen ? (ms. ITJ 1368 l. 38)


Social groups (status, family, lineage...) 

dBa's family 

blon chen 


Period of activity 

VIIIth century 



Biographical data 

dBa's Khri gzigs zhang nyen may have had a son called dBa's Khri bzang spo skyes (ms. ITJ 1368 l. 38). 

dBa's Khri gzigs zhang nyen became blon che (Great Minister) after Khu Mang po rje lha zung's disgrace in Snake year [705] (ms. PT 1287 l. 108, PT 1288-ITJ 750 l. 154-155). 

dBa's Khri gzigs zhang nyen gathered councils with 'bon Da rgyal bTsan zung in Horse year [706], Sheep year [707], Hog year [711], Rat year [712] and Ox year [713] (ms. PT 1288-ITJ 750 l. 157, 160-161, 179-180, 184-185, 188-189). 

In Tiger year [714] dBa's Khri gzigs zhang nyen and 'Bon da rgyal btsan zung led [Tibetan armies] to 'Bu shing kun (ms. PT 1288-ITJ 750 l. 196-197).

dBa's Khri gzigs zhang nyen was in mDo smad in Hare year [715], Snake year [717], Horse year [718], and Sheep year [719] (ms. PT 1288-ITJ 750 l. 200-201, 203-206, 209, 214). 

In Bird year [721] dBa's Khri gzigs zhang nyen, zhang bTsan to re [lhas byin] and zhang Khri bzang stag tsab died (ms. PT 1288-ITJ 750 l. 220-221). 

After dBa's Khri gzigs zhang nyen's death, dBa's Khri sum rje rtsang bzher became blon che (ms. PT 1288-ITJ 750 l. 223). 


Titles 

blon che (ms. PT 1287 l. 63) 

blon chen pho (ms. PT 1288-ITJ 750 l. 155, 157, 164, 180, 184, 187-188, 191, 196, 205, 220 ) 

blon chen po (ms. PT 1288-ITJ 750 l. 161, 167-169, 193-194, 200, 203) 


Notes 

In contradiction with the Old Tibetan Annals, ms. PT 1287 (l. 108-109) states that mGar Khri 'bring btsan brod became blon che after dBa's Khri gzigs zhang nyen.


Wednesday, 26 April 2017

'U 'i dum brtan

00058 
Other names / Alternative spellings 

'Wu'i dun brtan (ms. PT 134 l. 1, 6, 11, 21, 24 ,26, 28, 32, 34, 38, 40-42, 44, 49) 

rGyal po U rum dpal ? (ms. PT 83 l. 8.11)

Dar ma (ms. PT 840 l. 3.6)


Social groups (status, family, lineage...) 

sPu rgyal dynasty 


Period of activity

IXth century 


Biographical data 

'U 'i dum brtan's father was lDe srong brtsan (ms. PT 1286 l. 68-69). 

'U 'i dum brtan's mother was 'Bro za (lady) lHa rgyal Mang mo rje (ms. PT 1286 l. 68-69). 

'U 'i dum brtan's brother was Khri gTsug lde brtsan (ms. PT 1286 l. 68-69). 

'U 'i dum brtan reigned after Khri gTsug lde brtsan (ms. PT 1286 l. 69). 

'U'i dum brtan is the last btsan po recorded by ms. PT 1286 

Ms. PT 134 contains a Buddhist prayer addressed to the btsan po 'Wu'i dun brtan (see Scherrer-Schaub 1999).

Dar ma ['U 'i dum brtan] ruled before 'Od srus (i.e. 'Od srung, ms. PT 840 l. 3.5-3.6)


Titles 

btsan po lha sras (PT 134 l. 1) 

btsan po (ms. PT 134 l. 6, 11, 21, 24, 26, 28, 32, 34, 38, 40-42, 44, 49) 

lha sras (ms. PT 840 l. 3.5)


Notes 

'U'i dum brtan's blon chen (Great Minister) was dBa's rGyal to re stag snya 

According to later Tibetan historians, 'U 'i dum brtan was murdered by lHa lung dPal gyi rdo rje (see among others : Nyang Nyi ma 'od zer (XIIth c.) 2010 ed., p. 405-407, Ne'u pandita (XIIIth c.) 2005 ed. p. 31, mKhas pa lde'u (XIIIth c.) 2010 ed. p. 348...).

According to later Tibetan historians, 'U 'i dum brtan Glang dar ma had two queens. After his murder, each of them produced an heir ('Od srung and Yum brtan) and the empire was divided. The queens name were :  



Yum brtan's mother 'Od srung's mother

Old Tibetan ms. :
X jo mo bTsan mo 'phan

Nyang Nyi ma 'od zer
(2010 ed p. 413) :
btsun mo 'Bal phan bza' ma Tshes spong bza'

mKhas pa lDe'u
(2010ed. p. 349) :
'Phan bza' 'phan rgyal g.Yor mo btsan mo 'phan

lDe'u jo sras (1987ed. p. 141) :
'Ban bza' 'phan rgyal Tshe spong bza' g.Yor mo yum chen btsan mo 'phan

Blo gros thogs med (2010ed p. 297) :
'Ban za 'phan rgyal 'Brong za lha rgyan

dPa' bo gtsug lag
(2003ed p. 430) :
chen ma sNa nam bza' btsun mo chun ma Tshe spong bza' btsan mo 'phan


dBa's rGyal to re stag snya

00201 
Other names / Alternative spellings 


Social groups (status, family, lineage...) 

dBa's family 

blon chen 


Period of activity 

IXth century 

Reign of 'U'i dum brtan 


Biographical data 

dBa's rGyal to re stag snya became blon che (Great Minister) after 'Bro Khri sum rje stag snang (ms. PT 1287 l. 116-117). 

dBa's rGyal to re stag snya is the last blon che recorded by ms. PT 1287.


Titles 

blon che (ms. PT 1287 l. 63) 


Notes 

According to later Tibetan historians, Bran ka dPal gyi yon tan was killed after being slandered by dBa's rGyal to re stag snya, who spread the word that he had an affair with Cog ro za dpal gyi ngang tshul, a queen of the btsan po Khri gTsug lde brtsan (see among others mKhas pa lDe'u 2010ed. p. 340-342, Nyang Nyi ma 'od zer 2010ed. p. 395-396, Klong chen 1991ed. p. 383, rGyal rabs gsal ba'i me long 2005ed. p. 233 ; transl. in Sørensen 1999 p. 425-426).

According to Nyang Nyi ma 'od zer, dBas rGyal to re sprel mgo was nang blon during the reign of 'U dum btsan po (i. e. 'U'i dum brtan, see Nyang Nyi ma 'od zer's Chos 'byung me tog snying po sbrang rtsi'i bcud p. 396).


Tuesday, 25 April 2017

Khri gTsug lde brtsan

00057 
Other names / Alternative spellings 

Mu tsu brtan (ms. PT 1290 l. r2) 

Khri gTsug lde brtsan (ms. PT 16 l. 25v3, 28v2, PT 999 l. 1, PT 1286 l. 69, PT 1290 l. r2, ITJ 751 l. 36r3 37r4 38r1 39r2 41v2, inscr. Dunhuang cave 365 l. 1, Khrom chen l. f 31-32, lCang bu l. s10 s21, Peace Treaty l. e1, e51, w12-w13) 

Khri gTsug lde btsan (inscr. Khrom chen l. f5, r1-r2) 


Social groups (status, family, lineage...) 

sPu rgyal dynasty 


Period of activity 

IXth century 


Biographical data 

Khri gTsug lde brtsan's father was lDe srong brtsan (ms. PT 1286 l. 68-69) .

Khri gTsug lde brtsan's mother was 'Bro za (lady) lHa rgyal mang mo rje (ms. PT 1286 l. 68-69).

Khri gTsug lde brtsan's brother was 'U 'i dum brtan (ms. PT 1286 l. 69). 

When the name Khri gTsug lde brtsan was given to [the prince] Mu tsu brtan, the ban de Yon tan sang a song (rol mo glu tshigs bgyis pa ms. PT 1290 l. r2). 

According to the Sino-Tibetan peace treaty inscription, the three highest officials of Khri gTsug lde brtsan's government were [c. 822] : 

- the ban de chen po (Great Monk) dPal chen po yon tan (inscr. Peace treaty stele l. n9) 

- the dmag go chog gi bla (supreme general ?) ['Bro] zhang Khri sum rje [stag snang] (inscr. Peace treaty stele l. n10) 

- the blon chen po (Great Minister) whose name seems largely unreadable ("Lo bzher" according to Richardson 1985 p. 129, OTDO shows only an "o", inscr. Peace treaty stele l. n 11) 

Khri gTsug lde brtsan's blon che (Great Ministers) were : 

- dBa' Mang rje lha lod (see notes) 

- 'Bro zhang Khri sum rje stag snang (ms. PT 16 l. 26r2, 27r1, 28v4, 29r4, 29v4, 30r1, PT 1287 l. 116-117, ITJ 751 l. 36v1-36v2, 37r4, 39r2, 40r1, 41v1, 41v3) 

'U 'i dum brtan reigned after Khri gTsug lde brtsan (ms. PT 1286 l. 69).


Titles 

bod kyi lha btsan po (ms. PT 16 l. 25v3) 

myi rje lha (ms. PT 16 l. 25v3) 

lha sras (ms. PT 999 l. 1, ITJ 751 l. 39r2) 

rje lha sras (ms. ITJ 751 l. 41v2) 

btsan po (ms. PT 16 l. 28v2, PT 1290 l. r2, inscr. Khrom chen stele l. f4-f5, f31, r1, lCang bu stele l. s21) 

btsan po lha sras (inscr. lCang bu stele l. s10-s11) 

'phrul gyi lha btshan po (ms. ITJ 751 l. 36r3) 

'phrul gyi lha btsan po (ms. ITJ 751 l. 37r4, inscr. Peace treaty stele l. e1, e51) 

'phrul kyi lha btsan po (ms. ITJ 751 l. 38r1) 

'phrul gyi lha [b]rtsan pho (inscr. Dunhuang 365 l. 1) 

mnga' bdag rgyal po dpal lha btsan po ? (ITJ 637 l. 67r1).


Notes 

Nyang Nyi ma 'od zer (XIIth c., 2010ed. p. 385-386) states that : 

- Khri gTsug lde Ral pa can (i. e. Khri gTsug lde brtsan) had five queens : Cog ro bza' dpal gyi ngang tshul ma, mChims bza' Khyung dkar ma, sNa nam bza' A rje pho legs, Tshe spong bza' lHun gyi bu mo and lHa lung bza' Me tog ma,

- under his reign, the government included the minister (blon po) sBas Mang rje lha 'od (i.e. dBa' Mang rje lha lod) and the "religious minister" (chos kyi blon poban chen po dPal gyi yon tan.


Khri lDe srong brtsan

00055 
Other names / Alternative spellings 

lDe srong brtsan (ms. PT 1286 l. 68-69) 

lDe srong (inscr. rKong po l. 1, 13, 20)

Khri lDe srang brtsan (inscr. 'Bis khog 2 l. 2) 


Social groups (status, family, lineage...) 

sPu rgyal dynasty 


Period of activity 

IXth century 


Biographical data 

Khri lDe srong brtsan's father was Khri Srong lde brtsan (ms. PT 1286 l. 67-68). 

Khri lDe srong brtsan's mother was Tshes pong za (lady) rMa rgyal ldong skar (ms. PT 1286 l. 67-68). 

Khri lDe srong brtsan had two elder brothers :

Mu ne brtsan, whose lineage was cut (ms. PT 1286 l. 67-68). 

- Mu rug btsan (inscr. Zhva lha khang west l. 48).

As a child, the btsan po Khri lDe srong brtsan was raised by the ban de (monk) Myang Ting nge 'dzin who acted as a father and a mother (yab yum inscr. Zhva lha khang west l. 5-6).

Khri lDe srong brtsan's consort was 'Bro za lHa rgyal mang mo rje (ms. PT 1286 l. 68-69). 

Khri lDe srong brtsan's sons were Khri gTsug lde brtsan and 'U 'i dum brtan (ms. PT 1286 l. 68-69). 


Titles 

lha sras (inscr. Khri lDe srong brtsan's tomb rdo ring l. 6, rKong po l. 13, 20) 

'phrul gyi lha btsan po (inscr. sKar chung l. 1, Zhva'i lha khang east l. 1-2, Zhva'i lha khang west l. 1) 

lha btsan po (inscr. sKar chung l. 15, inscr. Khra 'brug bell l. 3-4) 

btsan po yab lha 'phrul (inscr. peace treaty l. e34)

btsan po (inscr. 'Bis khog 2 l. 2) 


Notes 

According to sGra 'byor bam po gnyis pa, in Horse year [802 or 814?] Khri lDe srong brtsan's blon chen and zhang was 'Bro Khri gzu ram shags (see rTa rdo (ed.) 2005, p. 70).

Nyang Nyi ma 'od zer (XIIth c.) states that : 

- 'Bro Khri bzung (i.e. 'Bro Khri gzu [ram shags]) was appointed as minister (blon) in the time of Khri lDe btsan (i.e. Khri lDe srong brtsan), the youngest son of Khri Srong lde brtsan (see Nyang Nyi ma 'od zer 2010 ed. p. 383-384).

- Khri lDe btsan "Sad na legs" had two queens, btsun mo Pho yongs bza' lHa btsun and 'Bro bza' Mang po lha rgyal, and five children, Khri gtsug lde ral pa can, lHa sras gtsang ma, Khri dar ma 'u dum btsan, lHa rje lhun grub and Khri chen lde'u (Nyang Nyi ma 'od zer 2010ed. p. 384-385).


Monday, 24 April 2017

Khu Mang po rje lha zung

00164 
Other names / Alternative spellings 

Khu Mang po rje lha zung (ms. PT 1287 l. 107-108, PT 1288-ITJ 750 l. 140-141, 154) 

lHa zung (ms. PT 1287 l. 108) 


Social groups (status, family, lineage...) 

Khu family 

blon chen 


Period of activity 

VIIIth century 



Biographical data 

Khu Mang po rje lha zung and the minister Mang rtsan ldong zhi gathered the winter council of mDo smad in Tiger year [702] (ms. PT 1288-ITJ 750 l. 140-141). 

In Snake year [705], Khu Mang po rje lha zung became blon chen (Great Minister) [c. six or seven years after mGar Khri 'bring btsan brod's downfall] but was disgraced shortly after (ms. PT 1288-ITJ 750 l. 154-155, PT 1287 l. 108). 

After Khu Mang po rje lha zung's disgrace, dBa's Khri gzigs zhang nyen became blon chen (ms. PT 1288-ITJ 750 l. 154-155, PT 1287 l. 108). 


Titles 

blon che (ms. PT 1287 l. 63) 

blon chen po (ms. PT 1288-ITJ 750 l. 154) 


Notes 

According to ms. PT 1287, Khu Mang po rje lha zung was blon che between mGar bTsan snya ldom bu and dBa's Khri gzigs zhang nyen (ms. PT 1287 l. 107-108).


mGar Khri 'bring btsan brod

00180 
Other names / Alternative spellings 

mGar Khri 'bring btsan brod (ms. PT 1287 l. 109, 495, 497) 

mGar Khri 'bring (ms. PT 1287 l. 501, 513) 

Khri 'bring (ms. PT 1287 l. 521, PT 1288-ITJ 750 l. 75, 77, 92, 94, 97, 103, 104, 115, 121, 123, 127) 

Khri 'bring btsan brod (ms. PT 1288-ITJ 750 l. 57, 91-92) 


Social groups (status, family, lineage...) 

mGar family

blon chen 


Period of activity 

VIIth century 




Biographical data 

In Bird year [673] and Dragon year [680], mGar bTsan snya ldom bu summoned the council in association with [his younger brother] mGar Khri 'bring btsan brod (ms. PT 1288-ITJ 750 l. 56-58, 76-77). 

mGar Khri 'bring btsan brod became blon che (Great Minister) in Bird year [685], after [his elder brother] mGar bTsan snya ldom bu's death (ms. PT 1288-ITJ 750 l. 91-92). 

In Bird year [685], mGar Khri 'bring btsan brod officially enthroned Khri 'Dus srong mang po rje (ms. PT 1288-ITJ 750 l. 91-92). 

mGar Khri 'bring btsan brod led armies in the land of the Turks (dru gu yul) in Dog year [686] and Hog year [687]. He was back in Tibet in Ox year [689] (ms. PT 1288-ITJ 750 l. 94-95, 97, 103). 

dBon Da rgyal [Khri zung] and blon che [mGar] Khri 'bring gathered the assembly at rTsang gyi gling kar tshal in Tiger year [690] (ms. PT 1288-ITJ 750 l. 105-106). 

In Snake year [693] mGar Khri 'bring btsan brod went in the land of 'A zha (ms. PT 1288-ITJ 750 l. 115). 

In Sheep year [695] mGar Khri 'bring btsan brod defeated a Chinese army led by Wang Zhang sho in the land of 'A zha at the place [since] known as "sTag la rgya dur" ("Chinese Graves of the Tiger Pass" ms. PT 1288-ITJ 750 l. 121-122, PT 1287 l. 495-523). 

mGar Khri 'bring btsan brod was in the land of 'A zha in Monkey year [696] (ms. PT 1288-ITJ 750 l. 121-122). 

In Dog year [698] mGar Khri 'bring btsan brod defeated and seized the Chinese general Thug pu shi in Tsong ka (ms. PT 1288-ITJ 750 l. 127-128). 

mGar [Khri 'bring btsan brod and his followers] were disgraced in the winter of Dog year [698-699] (ms. PT 1288-ITJ 750 l. 128, PT 1287 l. 331-333).

According to the Old Tibetan Annals, there was no blon chen after mGar Khri 'bring btsan brod before the nomination of Khu Mang po rje lha zung in Snake year [705] (ms. PT 1288-ITJ 750 l. 154)


Titles 

blon (ms. PT 1287 l. 521, PT 1288-ITJ 750 l. 75, 77, 92, 94, 97) 

blon che (ms. PT 1288-ITJ 750 l. 103, 104, 115, 121) 

blon ce (ms. PT 1288-ITJ 750 l. 123) 

blon chen po (ms. PT 1288-ITJ 750 l. 127) 


Notes 

According to Chinese sources : 

- Qinling [i. e. mGar Khri 'bring btsan brod] was a son of Lun Dongzan [i. e. mGar sTong rtsan yul zung] (Jiu Tangshu and Xin Tangshutransl. Pelliot 1961 p. 7, 85)

- In 699, Qi nu xi long [i. e. Khri 'Dus srong] organised the massacre of 2.000 members and supporters of the mGar family in order to regain the control of the state. He then led an army against Qinling/Khri 'bring who commited suicide after being abandoned by his followers (Pelliot 1961 p. 11, 94). 

- Qinling had a son named Mangbuzhi (most likely mGar Mang po rje stag rtsan) who fled to China after the downfall of the mGar family (Jiu Tangshu and Xin Tangshu transl. Pelliot 1961 p. 11, 94) also known as Lun Gongren (see Garatti 2015 p. 164, 167-171).

In contradiction with the Old Tibetan Annals, ms. PT 1287 states that mGar Khri 'Bring btsan brod was blon chen between dBa's Khri gzigs zhang nyen and dBa's Khri sum rje rtsang bzher (ms. PT 1287 l. 108-110).


Friday, 21 April 2017

dBa' Mang rje lha lod

00196 
Other names / Alternative spellings 


Social groups (status, family, lineage...) 

dBa's family 

blon chen 


Period of activity 

IXth century 



Biographical data 

dBa' Mang rje lha lod was blon chen (Great Minister) after 'Bro Khri gzu ram shags (ms. PT 1287 l. 115-116). 

After dBa' Mang rje lha lod, 'Bro Khri sum rje stag snang became blon chen (ms. PT 1287 l. 116- 117). 


Titles 

blon che (ms. PT 1287 l. 63) 


Notes 

According to Nyang Nyi ma 'od zer (XIIth c.), sBas Mang rje lha 'od was Khri gTsug lde brtsan's minister (blon po) while the ban chen po dPal gyi yon tan was "religious minister" (chos kyi blon po, see Nyang Nyi ma 'od zer's Chos 'byung me tog snying po sbrang rtsi'i bcud p. 386).

According to mKhas pa lDe'u (XIIIth c.) "sBa Mang rje lha lod" was blon po at the end of Khri lDe srong brtsan's reign and in the begining of [Khri gTsug lde brtsan] Ral pa can's reign (rGya bod kyi chos 'byung rgyas pa 2010 ed. p. 340).


Thursday, 20 April 2017

Pa tsab rGyal tsan thom po

00189 
Other names / Alternative spellings 


Social groups (status, family, lineage...) 

Pa tsab family 


Period of activity 

VIIth century 

Reign of Khri 'Dus srong 


Biographical data 

Pa tsab rGyal tsan thom po and mGar 'Bring btsan rtsang rton collected the felt taxes of the g.Yo ru fields (? g.yo ru'i zhing gyi phying ril btab) in Tiger year [690] (ms. PT 1288-ITJ 750 l. 106-107). 


Titles 


Notes


mGar 'Bring btsan rtsang rton

00184 
Other names / Alternative spellings 


Social groups (status, family, lineage...) 

mGar family 


Period of activity 

VIIth century 

Reign of Khri 'Dus srong 


Biographical data 

mGar 'Bring btsan rtsang rton and Pa tsab rGyal tsan thom po collected the felt taxes of the g.Yo ru fields (? g.yo ru'i zhing gyi phying ril btab) in Tiger year [690] (ms. PT 1288-ITJ 750 l. 106-107). 


Titles 


Notes 

mGar 'Bring btsan rtsang rton was possibly a son of mGar sTong rtsan yul zung.

'Bro Khri gzu ram shags

00195 
Other names / Alternative spellings 

'Bro Khri gzu ram shags (ms. PT 1287 l. 115) 

'Bro Khri gzu' ram shags (ms. PT 1287 l. 391-392) 

'Bro Ram shags (ms. PT 1287 l. 393) 

'Bro Phri gzu' dam shags (inscr. lDan ma brag II, l. 7)


Social groups (status, family, lineage...) 

'Bro family

blon chen

zhang


Period of activity 

VIIIth century 

IXth century 


Reign of Mu ne brtsan 



Biographical data 

[In 792-793 (see Beckwith 1987 p. 155)] 'Bro Khri gzu ram shags led armies in the east (stod pyogs) and vassalised Khotan (li, ms. PT 1287 l. 391-392). 

'Bro Khri gzu ram shags repressed a rebellion of the White Mya (i. e. Nanzhao ?), many 'Jang people were killed and the lord of the 'Jang paid homage [to the ruler of Tibet] (ms. PT 1287 l. 392-397).

'Bro Khri gzu ram shags became blon chen (Great Minister) after sNa nam zhang rGyal tshan lha snang (ms. PT 1287 l. 115). 

After 'Bro Khri gzu ram shags, dBa' Mang rje lha lod became blon chen (ms. PT 1287 l. 115-116). 


Titles 

blon che (ms. PT 1287 l. 63) 

dmag phon (ms. PT 1287 l. 393) 

zhang (inscr. lDan ma brag II, l. 7)


Notes 

According to Nyang Nyi ma 'od zer (XIIth c.), 'Bro Khri bzung (i.e. 'Bro Khri gzu [ram shags]) was appointed as minister (blon) in the time of Khri lDe btsan (i.e. Khri lDe srong brtsan), the youngest son of Khri Srong lde brtsan (see Nyang Nyi ma 'od zer's Chos 'byung me tog snying po sbrang rtsi'i bcud p. 383-384).

According to the sGra 'byor bam po gnyis, in Horse year [802 or 814 ?] Khri lDe srong brtsan's blon chen and zhang was 'Bro Khri gzu ram shags (see rTa rdo (ed.) 2005, p. 70).

According to mKhas pa lDe'u (XIIIth. c.)"'Bring gzung ram shags" was blon po during eight years under the reign of Khri lDe srong btsan. After him, a "mChims rTsang bzher legs" was blon po during five years before "sBa Mang rje lha lod"'s nomination (rGya bod kyi chos 'byung rgyas pa 2010 ed. p. 340).



Tuesday, 18 April 2017

mGar bTsan snya ldom bu

00150 
Other names / Alternative spellings 

mGar bTsan snya ldom bu (ms. PT 1287 l. 105, PT 1288- ITJ 750 l. 107) 

bTsan snya ldom bu (ms. PT 1287 l. 107) 

bTsan snya (ms. PT 1288-ITJ 750 l. 64, 76-78, 81, 84, 86, 90-91) 


Social groups (status, family, lineage...) 

mGar family 

blon chen


Period of activity 

VIIth century 


Reign (childhood) of Khri 'Dus srong mang po rje 


Biographical data 

After mGar sTong rtsan yul zung's death (in Hare year [667], ms. PT 1288 l. 48), lesser officials and vassals (zhang lon pra mo dang 'bangs) proposed to appoint dBa's sNang to re sum snang as blon che (great minister), but mGar bTsan snya ldom bu was eventually selected by the "lord and ministers" (rje blon, ms. PT 1287 l. 104-106). 

dBa's sNang to re sum snang was appointed as 'og pon in order to learn the duty of blon che from mGar bTsan snya ldom bu, but died soon after (ms. PT 1287 l. 106-107). 

In Bird year [673] and Dragon year [680], mGar bTsan snya ldom bu summoned the council in association with [his brother] mGar Khri 'bring btsan brod (ms. PT 1288-ITJ 750 l. 56-58, 76-77). 

In Rat year [676] mGar bTsan snya ldom bu led [an army] in the land of the Turks (dru gu yul, ms. PT 1288-ITJ 750 l. 90-91). 

mGar bTsan snya ldom bu died in Bird year [685], possibly murdered by [his younger brother (?)] mGar Mang nyen stag tsab (ms. PT 1288-ITJ 750 l. 90-91). 

After mGar bTsan snya ldom bu's death mGar Khri 'bring btsan brod became blon chen and Khri 'Dus srong mang po rje was enthroned (ms. PT 1288-ITJ 750 l. 91-92) 


Titles 

blon (ms. PT 1287 l. 107, PT 1288- ITJ 750 l. 64) 

blon chen pho (ms. PT 1288- ITJ 750 l. 76, 78, 81, 84, ) 

blon chen po (ms. PT 1288- ITJ 750 l. 77, 90) 

blon che (ms. PT 1288- ITJ 750 l. 86) 


Notes 

In contradiction with the "Old Tibetan Annals", the "Old Tibetan Chronicle" states that Khu Mang po rje lha zung and dBa's Khri gzigs zhang nyen were blon che between mGar bTsan snya ldom bu and mGar Khri 'bring btsan brod (ms. PT 1287 l. 107-109). 

According to the Tangshu "Zanxiruo" (i. e. mGar bTsan snya ldom bu) was the elder of the five sons of mGar sTong rtsan yul zung (transl. Pelliot 1961 p. 7, 85).


Khri Srong lde brtsan

00052 
Other names / Alternative spellings 

Srong lde brtsan (ms. ITJ 750 l. 291) 

Khri Srong lde brtsan (ms. PT 996 l. 2r3, PT 1286 l. 67, PT 1287 l. 366, Or 8212.187 l. 17, 29, inscr. 'Phyong rgyas l. 5, 16-17, bSam yas bell l. 7-8, rKong po l. 1, 12, sKar chung 12-13, 23, Zhol rdo ring s11, s16, s42, n5) 

Khri Srong lde btsan (ms. PT 840 l. 3.2, Brag lha mo inscr. A l. 1) 


Social groups (status, family, lineage...)

sPu rgyal dynasty 


Period of activity 

VIIIth century 


Biographical data 

Khri Srong lde brtsan's father was Khri lde btsug brtsan (ms. PT 1286 l. 66-67). 

Khri Srong lde brtsan's mother was sNa nam za' (lady) Mang mo rje bzhi steng (ms. PT 1286 l. 66-67). 

Khri Srong lde brtsan was born at Brag mar in Horse year [742], his mother [sNa nam za Mang mo rje] died in the same year (ms. PT 1288-ITJ 750 l. 289-292). 

When Khri Srong lde brtsan was young, his father Khri lDe btsug brtsan was murdererd by the ministers 'Bal sKyes bzang ldong tsab and Lang Myes gzigs [c. 755] (Or. 8212.187 l. 16, inscr. Zhol rdo ring l. s5-s20). 

'Bal sKyes bzang ldong tsab and Lang Myes gzigs were punished for their treason (Or. 8212.187 l. 16, inscr. Zhol rdo ring l. s5-s20).

Khri Srong lde brtsan was enthroned at Brag dmar in Monkey year [756] (ms. Or 8212.187 l. 16-18). 

Khri Srong lde brtsan's consort was Tshes pong za rMa rgyal ldong skar (ms. PT 1286 l. 67). 

Khri Srong lde brtsan's elder son was Mu ne brtsan alias Mu brtsan, who died without heir (ms. PT 1286 67-68). 

Khri Srong lde brtsan's younger son and heir was lDe srong brtsan, who ruled after Mu ne brtsan (ms. PT 1286 67-69). 

Khri Srong lde brtsan had another son named Mu rug brtsan, who was older than lDe Srong brtsan (inscr. Zhva'i lha khang west l. 48).

Khri Srong lde brtsan's blon che were : 

- dBa's sNang bzher zla brtsan [from 757 ? to 763] (ms. Or 8212.187 l. 25-60, PT 1287 l. 112-113) 

- mGos Khri bzang yab lag [from 763 to ?] (ms. Or 8212.187 l. 60, PT 1287 l. 113) 

- mChims zhang rGyal zigs shu teng (ms. PT 1287 l. 113-114), zhang in the time of Khri Srong lde brtsan, from Sheep year [755] to Hare year [763] (ms. Or 8212.187 l. 15-86, PT 1287 l. 376-377, also Zhol rdo ring inscr. l. s. 57) 

- Ngan lam sTag sgra klu khong (ms. PT 1287 l. 114), nang blon chen po in the Zhol rdo ring inscription (l. e2-e3) 

- sNa nam zhang rGyal tshan lha snang [died in 796] (ms. PT 1287 l. 115)

Khri Srong lde btsan invited buddhist scholars from India... (ms. PT 840 l. 3.2)  


Titles 

btsan po (ms.  PT 996 l. 2r3, PT 1287 l. 366) 

lha btsan po ('Phyong rgyas inscr. l. 5, 16) 

btsan po byang cub sems [d]pa' (Brag lha mo inscr. A l. 1) 

lha sras (ms. PT 840 l. 3.2)


Notes


Friday, 14 April 2017

Pa tshab rGyal to re

00188 
Other names / Alternative spellings

...tshab rgyal to re (ms. PT 1287 l. 526) 

Pa tshab rGyal to re (ms. PT 1287 l. 526) 


Social groups (status, family, lineage...) 

Pa tsab family 


Period of activity 

VIIth century 

VIIIth century 



Biographical data 

Pa tshab rGyal to re and mGar Mang po rje stag rtsan fled to China [c. 700, following Khri 'Dus srong mang po rje's victory over mGar Khri 'bring btsan brod] (ms. PT 1287 l. 526). 


Titles 


Notes


mGar Mang po rje stag rtsan

00185 
Other names / Alternative spellings 

... Mang po rje stag ... (ms. PT 1287 l. 526) 

mGar Mang po rje stag rtsan (ms. PT 1287 l. 530) 

sTag rtsan (ms. PT 1287 l. 534) 


Social groups (status, family, lineage...) 

mGar family 


Period of activity 

VIIth century 

VIIIth century 



Biographical data 

mGar Mang po rje stag rtsan's wife (mchis brang) was Cog ro za ("lady Cog ro", ms. PT 1287 l. 530). 

mGar Mang po rje stag rtsan and Pa tshab rGyal to re fled to China [c. 700, following Khri 'Dus srong's victory over mGar Khri 'bring btsan brod]. (ms. PT 1287 l. 526). 

[mGar Mang po rje] sTag rtsan was jo bo and bSam lang was the lord of China (rgya rje bsam lang ms. PT 1287 l. 534). 


Titles 

jo bo ? (ms. PT 1287 l. 534) 


Notes

mGar Mang po rje stag rtsan has to be identified with :

 - Mangbuzhi, mentioned in Jiu Tangshu and Xin Tangshu, a son of Qinling (i. e. mGar Khri 'bring btsan brod]) who fled to China after the downfall of the mGar (see transl. in Pelliot 1961 p. 11)

 - Gongren, known by a Chinese funrerary inscription (see Garatti 2015 p. 164, 167-171).