Social groups

'A zha (2) 'Bal (6) 'Ber (3) 'Bre (2) 'Bring yas (9) 'Bro (33) 'Brom (5) 'Bu na (1) 'Da'r (1) 'Dan ma (1) 'Dral (2) 'Go (1) 'Go 'bom (5) 'Gong bom (3) 'Greng ro (6) 'Jang (4) 'O ma lde (4) 'Ol (2) 'Ol god (1) An (6) Bal po (4) Bam (9) ban de (13) bKrags (2) blon chen (37) bon po (1) Brag (2) Bran ka (3) btsan mo (6) btsun mo (17) Byin (1) Ce (1) Cog ro (33) Da rgyal (4) Dags (6) dBa's (24) dBrad (2) De'u (1) dGro snya (4) dre (1) Dru gu (2) gcen (3) gcung (4) Gle'u (1) gNang (3) gNo' (1) gNubs (12) gnyan (1) gNyi ba (5) gNyos (2) Gro (2) gshen (3) Gu rib (4) gZhams (3) je ba (2) Je'u (2) Jeng (2) Kam (3) Kang (1) Khe rgad (1) Khu (8) Khyung po (6) klu (1) Lang gro (6) lCi sa (2) lCog la (1) lDe sman (4) lDe'u (2) lha (13) lHa lung (1) lHo (4) Lig (2) Mar (1) Mar kong (1) mChims (17) Meg le (4) mGar (13) mGos (2) mkhan po (13) mKhar pa (1) mNon (5) mNyan (3) Mon (1) Mong (3) mThon myi (2) Myang (17) Myva (4) nang rje po (7) Nem (1) Ngan lam (4) Pa gor (2) Pa tsab (5) pho nya (12) Pho yong (1) Phung (1) phyva (1) Reb kong (4) rGya gar (11) rGya nag (12) rgyal pran (23) rHya (2) Rlang (19) rMa (2) rMe'u (1) rNgegs (8) Rong spo (4) rTsig (1) Ru yong (2) Rye shin (1) Sag (1) sBrang (3) Seng go (6) She'u (1) Shud ke (1) Shud pu (4) sKa ba (2) sKya tsa (7) sKyi (3) sman (1) sNa nam (13) sNya shur (5) sPu rgyal btsan po (43) sPug (4) srin (10) Sro (1) sTang (3) Sum pa (2) Tre (2) Tshar long (7) Tshes pong (14) Update (1) Wang (1) Yo gang (5) Zha snga (3) zhang (36) zhu chen (6)

Friday, 31 May 2019

ban de gTsang ma

00496
Other names / Alternative spellings 


Social groups (status, family, lineage...) 

ban de (monk) 


Period of activity 

IXth century?* 

Reign of Khri gTsug lde brtsan?* 


Biographical data 

gTsang ma was a copyist (ms. PT 112 l. 31) 

Ban de gTsang ma was a copyist and a contemporary of the revisers lDe'u gling rma and Byon snang (ms. PT 1597


Titles 

ban de (ms. PT 1597


Notes 

See Lalou 1939-1961 n° 112, 1597 

On ms. PT 112, see also Silk 1993 (p. 7-8, 73-76) 

*see lDe'u gling rma (notes)


Tuesday, 28 May 2019

dre Ta tha ga tha

00345 
Other names / Alternative spellings 


Social groups (status, family, lineage...) 

dre?* 

Myang?** (unsure, work hypothesis) 


Period of activity

VIIIth century? 



Biographical data 

Dre Ta tha ga tha received instructions [on performing phur bu ritual practice (directly from Padma Sam ba ba ?)] (ms. PT 44 l. 17.4-18.3 ). 

'Bu na A na and dre Ta tha ga tha accomplished [phur bu ritual practice] in Brag dmar brag at the bSam yas cave, dre Ta tha ga tha, "struck fire" (ms. PT 44 l. 18.3-19.4 ). 

Dre Ta tha ga tha was likely also a contemporary of Ba bor Be ro tsa, and/or [Kha?] rtse Nya na si ga (ms. PT 44 l. 16.5-17.4). 


Titles 


Notes 

See Bischoff Hartman 1971 p. 23, Kapstein 2000 p. 158-159, Cantwell, Mayer 2008 p. 61-62. 

* I haven't find so far the epithet "dre" ("mule"?) as a family name in other Old Tibetan ms.. Could it be some sort of nickname? Compare with other characters mentioned in ms. PT 44 : gnyan rNyi ba bTsan ba dpal (gnyan : wild sheep?), perhaps also ba bor Be ro tsa (middle persian babr : tiger)? 

** Later documentation mentions a Nyang / Myang Ta tha ga tha which : 

- may have been a disciple of Vimalamitra ("... paN chen bi mâ la'i slob ma nyang ting 'dzin bzang po / nyang ta thâ ga ta / nyang shes rab 'byung gnas sogs gsang sngags kyi grub pa ..." see Nyang ston khra tshang blo gros mchog gi rdo rje'i rnam thar, p. 216 in gSung 'bum, vol. 12 / Ngag dbang blo bzang rgya mtsho. - Beijing : krung go'i bod rig pa dpe skrun khang, 2009) 

- is credited for the foundation of the Kha rag yul rje'i lha khang ("nyang ta thâ ga tas kha rag yul rje'i lha khang bzhengs /" Ne'u pandita 2005 ed. p. 27).


Tuesday, 21 May 2019

lDe'u Gling rma

00952 
Other names / Alternative spellings 

lDe'u Gling rma (ms. PT 1581, PT 1587, PT 1597

Gling rma (ms. PT 1586

Gling ma (ms. PT 1612


Social groups (status, family, lineage...) 

lDe'u 


Period of activity 

IXth century?*  

Reign of Khri gTsug lde brtsan?*  


Biographical data

lDe'u Gling rma was a reviser (ms. PT 1581, PT 1586, PT 1587, PT 1597, PT 1612, PT 1652) and a contemporary of: 

- Le'u Byon snang, reviser (ms. PT 1581, PT 1586, PT 1587, PT 1597, PT 1612

- Kem re brtsan, copyist (ms. PT 1581

- De'u shin, copyist (ms. PT 1586)


sKya tsa lHa lho (?), reviser (ms. PT 1612

- dPal gyi ngang tshul, reviser (ms. PT 1587)* 

ban de gTsang ma, copyist (ms. PT 1597)


Titles 


Notes 

See Lalou 1939-1961 doc. n°1581 1586, 1587, 1602, 1597 

dPa' bo gtsug lag 'phreng ba includes a "yi ge pa dgon Gling rma" in his list of bstan pa snga dar gyi lo tsâ ba (see dPa' bo gtsug lag 'phreng ba 2003 ed. vol. 1 p. 525-526) 

*dPal gyi ngang tshul (mentioned in Dotson 2013-2014 [2015], p. 40) and a contemporary of 'Gong bom Yul byin (ms. PT 1648). 


Monday, 20 May 2019

Rye shin Khu bul bu

00246 
Other names / Alternative spellings 


Social groups (status, family, lineage...) 

Rye shin? 


Period of activity 

VIIth century 



Hegemony of mGar 


Biographical data 

In Ox year [677] Rye shin Khu bul bu and lCog la Ring tsug skor were disloyal, and Zhang zhung revolted (ms. PT 128-ITJ 0750 l. 69-70). 


Titles 


Notes


lCog la Ring tsug skor

00247 
Other names / Alternative spellings 


Social groups (status, family, lineage...) 

lCog la* 


Period of activity 

VIIth century 



Hegemony of mGar 


Biographical data 

In Dog year [674], lCog la* revolted (ms. PT 1288-ITJ 0750 l. 60). 

In Ox year [677] Rye shin Khu bul bu and lCog la Ring tsug skor were disloyal, and Zhang zhung revolted (ms. PT 1288-ITJ 0750 l. 69-70). 


Titles 


Notes 

*An area in Zhang zhung (Dotson 2009 p. 90). Sometime also used as a name, sBa bzhed (2010 ed. p. 99) mentions a lCog la sMon la ma 'bar as a supporter of bon in the time of Khri Srong lde btsan.

Sunday, 12 May 2019

'Bro g.Yu gong

01048
Other names / Alternative spellings 


Social groups (status, family, lineage...) 

'Bro


Period of activity 

VIIIth century? 

Reign of Khri Srong lde brtsan?


Biographical data 

In Rat year [782?*], from Tibet, appointed as dpon sna of the Sha cu pa : Rongspo g.Yu gong, the rtse rje blon ; Khyung po Klu rma, the rtse rje spyan ; 'Bro g.Yu gong, the rtse rje 'bring po ; 'Bal Du ma legs, the rtse rje chu ngu and dgra blon...  (ms. PT 1089 l. r53-54)


Titles 

rtse rje 'bring po (ms. PT 1089 l. r54) 


Notes 

Obviously not to be confused with the Rongspo g.Yu gong of ms. PT 1089 l. r53.

A zhang sTag rma g.yu gong is mentioned in ms. ITJ 1126 l. 2, but the document is dating from the mid IXth century according to S. van Schaik (2012, p. 430).

(Probably another) g.Yu gong is mentioned as a copyist in ms. PT 1302 f76b ; also as copyist and reviser in ms. PT 1312 f37b.

See also ms. PT 1845 verso, offered to the nang rje po blon rMa bzher and the blon bTsan bzher by g.Yu gong and gSas legs.

On ms. PT 1089 see Scherrer-Schaub 2007, also Lalou 1939.

* See Scherrer-Schaub 2007 p. 270


Saturday, 11 May 2019

Khyung po Klu rma

00780
Other names / Alternative spellings 


Social groups (status, family, lineage...) 

Khyung po


Period of activity 

VIIIth century? 

Reign of Khri Srong lde brtsan?


Biographical data 

In Rat year [782?*], from Tibet, appointed as dpon sna of the Sha cu pa : Rongspo g.Yu gong, the rtse rje blon ; Khyung po Klu rma, the rtse rje spyan ; 'Bro g.Yu gong, the rtse rje 'bring po ; 'Bal Du ma legs, the rtse rje chu ngu and dgra blon...  (ms. PT 1089 l. r53-54)


Titles 

rtse rje spyan (ms. PT 1089 l. r54) 


Notes 

Not to be confused with Do Klu rma (ms. PT 1500)

On ms. PT 1089 see Scherrer-Schaub 2007, also Lalou 1939.

Mention of "mang sgra blon klu rma" under Khri lDe srong btsan in mKhas pa'i dga' ston (dPa' bo gtsug lag  'phreng ba 2003 ed. vol.. 1 p. 411-413)

*Scherrer-Schaub 2007 p. 270

Rongspo g.Yu gong

00630 
Other names / Alternative spellings 


Social groups (status, family, lineage...) 

Rongs po 


Period of activity 

VIIIth century? 

Reign of Khri Srong lde brtsan?


Biographical data 

In Rat year [782?*], from Tibet, appointed as dpon sna of the Sha cu pa : Rongspo g.Yu gong, the rtse rje blon ; Khyung po Klu rma, the rtse rje spyan ; 'Bro g.Yu gong, the rtse rje 'bring po ; 'Bal Du ma legs, the rtse rje chu ngu and dgra blon...  (ms. PT 1089 l. r53-54)


Titles 

rtse rje blon (ms. PT 1089 l. r53) 


Notes 

Obviously not to be confused with the 'Bro g.Yu gong of ms. PT 1089  l. r54

(Probably another) g.Yu gong is mentioned as a copyist in ms. PT 1302 f76b ; also as copyist and reviser in ms. PT 1312 f37b

See also ms. PT 1845 verso, offered to the nang rje po blon rMa bzher and the blon bTsan bzher by g.Yu gong and gSas legs. 

On ms. PT 1089 see Scherrer-Schaub 2007, also Lalou 1939.

* See Scherrer-Schaub 2007 p. 270


Thursday, 9 May 2019

Reb kong Zhang zigs

00825 
Other names / Alternative spellings 

Reb kong Zhang zigs (ms. PT 2117)

Zhang zigs (ms. PT 1214)

 
Social groups (status, family, lineage...) 

Reb kong (place of origin?)

 
Period of activity 

VIIIth century? 

IXth century?  


Reign of Mu ne brtsan



Reign of 'U 'i dum brtan


Biographical data 

Reb kong Zhang zigs was a contemporary of a nang rje po blon bTsan bzang (ms. PT 2117


Titles 


Notes 

See Lalou 1939-1961 doc. n° 2117 Not to be confused with Rlang Zhang zig

Wednesday, 8 May 2019

gZhams Khye 'u cung

00248 
Other names / Alternative spellings 


Social groups (status, family, lineage...) 

gZhams 


Period of activity 

IXth century? 



Biographical data 

gZhams Khye 'u cung, mentioned in a Horse year (? ms. TibHT 21 l. v7). 


Titles 


Notes 

*A rtsang rje blon Khye 'u chung is mentioned by dPa' bo gtsug lag 'phreng ba in the time of Khri lDe srong btsan (dPa' bo gtsug lag 'phreng ba 2003 ed. vol. 1, p. 411-413). It is unclear whether "rtsang rje" is a name or a title, and the identification of gZhams Khye 'u cung to rtsang rje blon Khye 'u chung is very uncertain.

Tuesday, 7 May 2019

Nya khri

01050
Other names / Alternative spellings 

Nya khri (TibHT 2 l. 1). 

'Br[...] Nya khri (TibHT 2 l. 5). 


Social groups (status, family, lineage...) 

'Bro? 

'Bre? 


Period of activity 

Reign of Khri Srong lde btsan?* 

VIIIth century? 


Biographical data 

'Br[...] Nya khri was a contemporary of zhang rGyal nyen (TibHT 2 l. 1). 


Titles 


Notes 

*See notes on zhang rGyal nyen

zhang rGyal nyen

01049 
Other names / Alternative spellings 


Social groups (status, family, lineage...) 

zhang 

sNa nam? 


Period of activity 

Reign of Khri Srong lde btsan?* 

VIIIth century? 


Biographical data 

Zhang rGyal nyen was a contemporary of 'Br[...] Nya khri (TibHT 2 l. 1, 5). 


Titles 

zhang (TibHT 2 l. 1) 


Notes 

*Mentions of two (?) zhang rGyal nyen in later literature, both linked to the reign of Khri Srong lde btsan: 

- the lo tsâ ba "zhang rGyal nyen nya bzang" (dPa' bo gtsug lag 'phreng ba 2004 ed. p. 525-526, Klong chen chos 'byung 1991 ed. p. 377-380, also "zhang rGyal nyen nyam bzang" in Bu ston 1991 ed. p. 190), likely the same as the "sNa nam rGyal nyer bzangs", one of the che bdun dpon bdun in the time of Khri Srong lde btsan ("sna nam rgyal nyer bzangs ni chos kyi bla mkhyen yin pas che", mKhas pa lde'u 149na 2010 ed. p. 251-252), and the chos kyi shags mkhan "zhang rGyal nya bzang" in the debate between buddhists and bon (dBa' bzhed 2010 ed. p. 27-28) 

- dPa' bo gtsug lag 'phreng ba mentions (another character?) "zhang rGyal nyen zla gong", one of the oath takers in the time of Khri Srong lde btsan (dPa' bo gtsug lag 'phreng ba 2004 ed. p. 372-373). 


Friday, 3 May 2019

sNya shur sPungs rye rgyug

00159 
Other names / Alternative spellings 

sNya shur sPungs rye rgyug (ms. PT 1288-ITJ 0750 l. 53*, according to OTDO and Dotson 2009 p. 89) 

sNya shur sPu ngas rye rkyug (ms. PT 1288-ITJ 0750 l. 53, according to Bacot, Thomas, Toussaint 1946 p. 33) 

sNya shur sPu ngas rye ryug (ms. PT 1288-ITJ 0750 l. 53, alternative reading proposed in Stein 1971B p. 249) 

ra sang rje sPung rye ryung (ms. PT 1288-ITJ 0750 l. 72)** 

ra sang rje sPung rye ryang (ms. PT 1288-ITJ 0750 l. 72, Dotson 2009 p. 92)**

Ra sang rje (ms. PT 1288-ITJ 0750 l. 75)?*** 


Social groups (status, family, lineage...) 

sNya shur 


Period of activity 

VIIth century 




Biographical data 

In Sheep year [671] sNya shur sPungs rye rgyug received btsan mo sNya mo stengs as bride (ms. PT 1288-ITJ 0750 l. 53). 

In Tiger year [678] ra sang rje sPung rye ryung and Khu Khri snya dgru zung were disgraced (ms. PT 1288-ITJ 0750 l. 72). 

In Dragon year [680] The wealth of Khu and ra sang rje was calculated (ms. PT 1288-ITJ 0750 l. 75-76) 


Titles 

ra sang rje? (ms. PT 1288-ITJ 0750 l. 72, 75)***


Notes 

*The line is split between ms. PT 1288 and ITJ 0750. 

**Possible identification of sNya shur sPungs rye rgyug to ra sang rje sPung rye ryung proposed in Stein 1971B, p. 249 (among others). Stein also evokes the possibility of identifying ra sang rje sPung rye ryung to Khyung po Ra sang rje

***A title? See, among others, Richardson 1967 p. 11, Belezza 2008 p. 522.


Thursday, 2 May 2019

sNya shur

*rus0038 
Alternative spellings 


Notes 

An epithet of the kings of Zhang zhung, possibly the name of a rus (see Dotson 2009 p. 89, see also Petech 1967 p. 272).  

A sNya shur blon Da tsug snyam is mentioned by dPa' bo gtsug lag 'phreng ba in the time of Khri lDe srong btsan (see " dPa' bo gtsug lag 'phreng ba 2003 ed. p. 411-413 " among the Lists of Characters from later Histories and gTer ma).

Also mentioned as a "rus" in a much later manuscript studied by A. W. Macdonald : "...Ldong chen po announces to the men of the four directions what are their rus. As they themselves cannot say what are their rus, they come together to ask him. He leads them to the dead body of a g.yag and says : 'All of you, take hold of the body of this g.yag.' I will give you as name whatever part you take hold of. [...] To those who seized the nape of the neck, he gave the name of sNya-shur-pha..." (snya ba la bzung pas / snya' shur pha mtshan zhes stag so, in A. W. Macdonald "Creative dismemberment among the Tamang and Sherpas of Nepal" 1979 p. 201-202, 207). 

The mNga' ris rgyal rabs seems to use "gnya' shur" more like a place name : "nub phyogs gnya' shur gyi rgyal po" (in Vitali 1996, p. 21).